Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry

About Department
The Department of Veterinary Physiology & Biochemistry started functioning in 1948 with the establishment of the Camp Veterinary College at Hisar affiliated to Punjab University, when the college was shifted from Lahore to Hisar, The department was shifted to the present building in the year 1958, and was named as department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry headed by Dr. C.L. Vohra LVP-PVS-I. Dr. Kalicharan and Dr. D.P. Sharma were Assistant Professors and Dr. (Mrs.) S. Bhardwaj and Dr. Daljeet Singh Sahani were demonstrators. On establishment of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) in 1962 with Hisar as Campus, the department was reorganized and was renamed Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology with Dr. Ajit Singh as Head, Dr. B.S. Paul as Professor Pharmacology, Dr. B. Mishra, Associate Professor of Physiology, Dr. B.D. Garg, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, Dr. P.D. Kapoor & Dr. O.P. Nangia, Assistant Professors of Veterinary Physiology, Dr. M.S. Setia as Assistant Professor of Physiological Chemistry and Dr. V.K. Agarwal & Dr. V.P. Dixit as Lecturers. In 1970 the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology were separated with Dr. D.P. Sharma as Head of Veterinary Physiology. In 1972, Dr. S.S. Sukhija joined as Assistant Professor in Physiological Chemistry. The faculty gained strength by joining of Dr J. P. Puri & Dr S.L.Garg. Dr. Sandeep Gera, Dr. M. Gupta joint teaching fraternity in Veterinary Physiology in 1986, Dr. M.K. Rose and Dr. Sonia Sindhu in 1995. This arrangement continued till 1999, when as per VCI guidelines the Department of Veterinary Physiology was bifurcated into Department of Veterinary Physiology, headed by Dr. S.K. Garg and Department of Veterinary Biochemistry headed by Dr. V.K. Agarwal. Dr. N. Sangwan (VBC) joined in 2000. Dr. Jyotsana (VPY), Dr. Anita Ganguly and Dr. Sandeep Kumar (VBC) joined the faculty in 2009. Faculty in Department of Animal Production Physiology consistently produced research and teaching of international status since 1966 to June, 2011, when it became part of Physiology and biochemistry. In June 2011, the three departments of Veterinary Physiology, Animal Production Physiology and Veterinary Biochemistry were merged into single entity christened as Department of Veterinary Physiology & Biochemistry as per VCI guidelines 2009 with Dr. Sandeep Gera as Head. This brought on board the strength of endocrinology, semen biology and environmental Physiology through Dr. R.K. Tuli, Dr. Pardeep Singh, Dr. R.K. Malik and Dr. Meenakshi Virmani. Dr. Shalini Sharma and Dr Vijender Singh joined the faculty in 2014.
This department has a distinction to be housed in the very first building of the campus, whose foundation stone was laid by Dr.Punjab Rao Deshmukh, Union Minister of Agriculture on 2nd October, 1955. The department had the privilege of shifting in the newly constructed building in 1957 which accommodated the whole faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences at that time. Presently, this building is being shared by the department of Veterinary Anatomy and Veterinary Physiology & Biochemistry. The additional infrastructural facility are in terms of Nuclear Research Laboratory started by Dr P. K. Dwark Nath, once approved by AERB Mumbai for disposal of radioisotope waste and radiation in-vitro studies along with a animal production facility as Artificial Insemination pavilion, diagnostic laboratory, semen biology laboratory and Radioisotope laboratory in Animal Sciences premises of the LUVAS. These laboratories are well equipped with latest instruments and audio-visual aids. The department offers specialization in Veterinary Physiology and Veterinary Biochemistry with diagnostics, clinical biochemistry, environmental physiology, semen biology, infertility profiling, endocrinology, neem biology, ketosis experimental physiology, draft capacity, mastitis biochemical studies, reproductive biology, equine/bubaline stem cell research, digestive physiology. Parasitic control and bubaline proteomic profile of pregnancy specific protein, genetic polymorphism studies on hsp 70, LHR, LEPR genes, donor cell profiling for embryo cloning and characterization thereof as thrust areas for PG research.

Head of the Department :  
Dr. Manoj Rose
Phone (O): 01662-256121
E-Mail :
  1. Metabolic and endocrine studies in ruminants to augment production efficiency.
  2. Enhancement of reproductive efficiency in farm animals through physiological interventions.
  3. Establishment of biochemical profile of livestock in health and disease.
  4. Exploration of biomarkers for development of affordable diagnostics and therapeutics.


Ø  Thrust areas for research
  • Reproduction Physiology and Endocrinology
  • Digestive Physiology and Metagenomics.
  • Environmental Physiology
  • Clinical Biochemistry.
  • Immuno-Biochemistry
  • Functional Genomics and Proteomics


 Dr. Pradeep Singh  Professor (Vety. Physiology)    View Details 
2.  Dr. Sandeep Gera  Professor (Vety. Biochemistry) View Details
3.  Dr. Meenkshi Gupta Professor (Vety. Physiology) View Details
4.  Dr. Nirmal Sangwan Professor (Vety. Biochemistry) View Details
5.  Dr. M K Rose Professor (Vety. Physiology) View Details
6.  Dr. R K Malik  Professor (Vety. Physiology)  View Details 
7.  Dr. Sonia Sindhu Professor (Vety. Physiology) View Details
8.  Dr. Jyotsana  Scientist (Vety. Physiology) View Details 
9.  Dr.Sandeep Kumar  Scientist (Vety. Biochemistry) View Details 
10.  Dr.Meenakshi Virmani Scientist (Vety. Physiology) View Details
11.  Dr. Shalini Sharma  Assistant Professor (Vety. Biochemistry) View Details
12.  Dr. Vijender Singh Assistant Professor (Vety. Biochemistry) View Details


Supporting Staff

Sr. No.




Sh. Tarun Kumar



Sh. Surender Singh

JSS (Establishment in Dean, COVS & working in this department)


Sh. Mohan Kumar



Sh. Om Parkash

Clerk (Re-employed)


Sh. Krishan Kumar

Lab. Technician


Sh. Regan Kumar

Lab. Technician


Sh. Narender Kumar



Sh. Rattan Lal

Sr. Lab Assistant


Sh. Hari Singh

Lab. Assistant (Working in CCL)


Sh. Sant Lal

Lab. Assistant


Smt. Sushila Kumari

Lab. Assistant


Sh. Kuldeep Kumar

Lab Attendant


Sh. Krishan Kumar

Lab Attendant


Sh. Kartar Singh

Animal Attendant


Sh. Balbir Singh

Animal Attendant


Smt. Kela Devi


Post Graduate Students

Batch: 2016   



Deeksha (VPY)                      


Muhammad Abubakar Wakil (VPY)


Ramkaran (VBC)


Surbhi (VBC)






Batch: 2017   



Rahul (VBC)                                                  


Sweety (VBC)


Current Post Graduate students (M.V.Sc/Ph.D.)
  1. Ashok Kumar, 2019V30M (VPY)
  2. Krishan Kumar, 2019V13D (VPY)
  3. Arushi Kanwar, 2019V03M (VPY)
  4. Sandeep, 2018V48M (VPY)
  5. Harpreet Singh Khattar, 2018V47M (VPY)
  6. Sweety, 2017V10D (VBC)
  7. Muhammad Abubakar Wakil, 2016V22D (VPY)
  8. Ramkaran, 2016V12D (VBC)
Number of post graduate students passed out since 2011


Name of Scholars                              Year Degree Awarded

1.     Ashok Kumar (VPY)                          2012

2.     Niharika Mohanty (VBC)                   2013

3.     Rajesh Kumar (VPY)                         2013

4.     Fozia Shah (VPY)                             2014

5.     Mayukh Ghosh (VBC)                       2015

  Surbhi (VBC)                                   2019 


Name of Scholars                              Year Degree Awarded

1.     Preeti Singh (VPY)                            2011                                       

2.     Mayukh Ghosh (VBC)                        2012

3.     Krishna Kumar (VPY)                        2014

4.     Archana Sarangi (VPY)                      2016

5.     Dheer Singh Swami (VPY)                 2016

6.     Deepak Kumar (VBC)                        2016

7.     Maninder Singh Sheoran (VBC)          2016

8.     Ramkaran (VBC)                               2016

9.     Surbhi (VBC)                                    2016

10.  Krishan Kumar (VPY)                          2017

11.  Vijayalakshmy K (VPY)                        2017

12.  Vikas Jyani (VPY)                                2017

13.  Vikramjeet Singh (VPY)                       2017

14.  Rahul (VBC)                                       2017

15.  Naveen Kumar (VBC)                          2017

16.  Rajpal Kaur (VBC)                               2017

17.  Sweety (VBC)                                      2017

Major Research Achievements
Salient research findings/highlights
    • A1/A2 β-casein Genotyping:

    ü A total of 65 Murrah buffaloes tested for A1/A2 genotype of beta casein gene, all were found to be having A2A2 genotype.

    • Novel Method of Proteins Purification:

    ü Developed a simple and rapid technique for purification of anionic proteins from a complex mixture of proteins. The technique so developed could be utilized to segregate cationic and anionic proteins. Using this technique, we succeeded in purification of the beta-casein from whole milk of buffaloes and cattle nearly up to 90%.

    • Metabolic and Endocrine Profile of Growing Goat Kids:

    ü A significant decrease in glucose and cholesterol concentrations was observed in both male and female kids after three months of age till 12 months.

    ü Triglyceride and protein concentration didn’t change due to advancement of age in both male and female goats.

    ü Estradiol concentration in both male and female kids decreased during first three months of age and then increased at six months of age.

    ü Thyroxine hormone concentration in male gradually increased with age reaching peak at six months of age while in female it decreased at one month of age and thereafter gradually increased upto six months of age.

    ü A gradual decrease in lymphocyte percent in goat kids with increasing age was observed till 12 months of age.

    ü Progesterone concentration was higher at -30 day prepartum and lowest at zero day (kidding day).

    ü Triglyceride and urea concentration was higher in twin producing goats during last month of pregnancy.

    • Applied Reproductive Physiology:

    ü When sperms were incubated at 37 C, it resulted in significant decrease in progressive sperm motility, Percent live spermatozoa, percent spermatozoa with intact acrosome and superoxide dismutase.

    ü There was significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation in sperms at 3 hours of incubation at 37ºC.

    ü Sperm motility, percent sperm liveability and fructose concentration were found to be positively correlated with the zinc level in the seminal plasma, whereas fructose level was found to be negatively correlated.

    ü Administration of dinoprost tromethamine (prostaglandin F2α) intramuscularly at the time of artificial insemination increased the conception rate in buffaloes.

    ü Supplementation of dinoprost tromethamine (prostaglandin F2α) intramuscularly at the time of artificial insemination was observed to be more effective in primiparous animals and heifers as compared to pluriparous animals.

    ü Triu B intravaginal implant and Crestar ear implant both were found to be effective in inducing estrus response in anestrus buffalo cows. However, Triu B intravaginal implant was more effective than Crestar ear implant for the treatment of anestrus animals in terms of conception rate.

Salient Research findings from Student’s research:
  • Applied Reproductive Physiology:

ü Supplementation of antioxidants in form of Vitamin E @ 3 mM and glutathione @ 1mM in tris extender helps in liquid preservation of buck semen upto 72hours at 4°C in refrigerator with higher progressive sperm motility,              

ü Higher liveability percentage, higher percentage of sperms with intact acrosome.

ü Supplementation of antioxidants leads to decreased lipid peroxidation and increase in antioxidant enzymes, thus offering protection to the spermatozoa from the free radicals generated during storage of semen.    

ü There was no significant difference of NIANP bull specific mineral mixture before and after feeding on semen quality.   

ü Cysteamine would not be a suitable antioxidant as a supplement in extender for freezing bull semen as cysteamine has shown detrimental effects on semen quality and caused oxidative stress to the frozen sperms.  

ü OptiprepTM (2.5% of 60% iodixanol) supplementation to freezing extender increases post-thaw sperm motility, membrane integrity, travelled more distance in cervical mucus in vitro condition and maintain better sperm motility in incubation test. Further, OptiprepTM supplementation minimizes oxidative stress during cryopreservation.  ·    

ü Supplementation of 0.2–1% sericin also in semen extender improved frozen-thawed semen quality by preventing oxidative stress.    

  • Proteomics:

ü Total protein bands in Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus salivary gland crude extract were found to be 23 and 21 and there were variations in protein bands in both the species.       

ü Hyalomma anatolicum salivary gland protein fraction nos. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 42, 58, 111 and 112 were found to have anti-platelet aggregation activities whereas in Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus salivary gland protein fraction nos. 22, 23, 25, 27, 31, 36, 38, 39 and 51 had the anti-platelet aggregation activities.        

ü In Hyalomma anatolicum fraction nos. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 42, 58, 111 and 112 showed inhibitory effects on the release of intracellular calcium as evidenced by decrease in fluorescence emitted whereas in Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus intracellular calcium release inhibitory activities were found in fraction no. 22, 25, 27, 31, 36, 38, 39 and 51.        

ü Platelet adhesion inhibition activities were observed in fraction nos. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 42, 58, 111 and 112 of

ü Hyalomma anatolicum which were significantly lower than the antagonist. Similarly in Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus fraction nos. 22, 25, 27, 31, 36 and 51 inhibited the platelet adhesion whichwere significantly lower than the antagonist induced platelet adhesion inhibition.

ü Fraction no. 38 and 39 of Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus showed inhibitory platelet adhesion activities similar to that of antagonist.         

ü Mass spectrometric analysis of the proteins/peptides having the antiplatelet aggregating activities were found to resemble serum albumin precursor and globin subunit in Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, respectively. These host protein homologues-proteins produced by the ticks seems to mimic host proteins.           

ü Scanning electron photomicrograph showed platelet aggregation inhibition with Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus(boophilus) microplus specific salivary gland protein fractions with rounding off of platelets having sponge like appearance without any pseudopodia. 

  • DGAT Polymorphism in Hardhenu Cattle:

ü In Hardhenu cattle population genotype frequencies were 0.30 (KK) and 0.70 (AK).

ü The frequency of K and A allele were 0.65 & 0.35. A total of 15 KK and 35 AK animals were identified in Hardhenu cattle whereas no animal of AA genotype were observed. The overall DGAT1K allele frequency in crossbred cattle was 0.65.     

ü Lysine variant was the likely ancestral form of DGAT1 gene and the presence of lysine allele in buffaloes and Indian zebu cattle breeds might be one of the factors for the high fat content of milk.

ü Because of very high frequency to almost fixed nature of K allele in Sahiwal and other well defined Indian cattle breeds, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism may not be a suitable candidate for selection purpose.

ü However, considering the increasing trends of crossbred cattle population in India, elimination of the K allele or selection against it may be suggested to increase milk and protein yield in crossbred like Frieswal once association of K232A polymorphism with production traits is established.

ü Moreover, consideration of selection pressure will be very important to counterbalance the negative effect on fat yield.

  • Biochemical and Endocrine Profile in Hardhenu Cattle:

ü The hematological, endocrine, enzymological, metabolic, electrolyte and mineral profile for 31 nascent parameters over 48 samples of Hardhenu are documented for use as base data. The same can be used for physiological, paraclinical and clinical back up for this new crossbred strain of cattle.    

ü The statistically significant breed wise higher value of hemoglobin, glucose, albumin in Sahiwal; TLC, creatinine, potassium, triglycerides in Hariana and ALT, bilirubin, thyroxin, progesterone in Hardhenu are observed.

ü Age wise difference in these groups is presented for evaluation of gerontological status. 
  • Research Projects
  •  Role of motility stimulators in improving quality of frozen semen of Murrah buffalo bulls sponsored by Government of Haryana.
  • Physiological Investigation for augmenting reproduction & production in farm Livestock & poultry sponsored by Government of Haryana. 
  • Biochemical changes in malnutrition and parasitic diseases sponsored by Government of Haryana.
  • Setting up of referral biochemical laboratory-strengthening of existing nuclear research laboratory for diagnostic aids to the farmers sponsored by Government of Haryana under RKVY.
  • Identification and characterization of novel peptides of clinical importance from salivary glands of Hyalomma ticks sponsored by University Grants Commission.
  • Studies on Digestive Physiology of Ruminants sponsored by Government of Haryana.
  • Supply of injection material to farmers for induction of lactation in infertile cattle sponsored by Government of Haryana under self financed scheme. 
Completed projects
 Title of the project
Name of the PI
Haematological studies on Hariana Cattle and Beetle Goats
Dr Ajit Singh
Thyroid function of domestic animals and Poultry
Dr Ajit Singh
Early Development of Rumen Function In buffalo calves
1/1977 to 3/1981
Dr. O.P. Nangia
Draught capacity in castrated buffalo males, camels and cross bred calves
1974-75 to 1997
Dr. S.P. Agarwal
Hormonal Profile of livestock in relation to certain reproductive and systematic diseases.
1979-80 Non Plan Vety. Biochemistry after bifurcation
Dr. S.L. Garg
Manipulation of rumen microbial ecosystem in order to increase efficiency of feed utilization.
1991 to 1995
Dr. O.P. Nangia
Regulation of feed intake in buffaloes
Dr. O.P. Nangia
Studies on effect of neem extract on physiological and Immunological parameters
Dr. Sandeep Gera
4017-C(g)-VPB-1-OA- Upgrading of Biochemistry laboratory for providing diagnostic aids to the farmer




Dr. S. Kumar
7002-C(g)-VBC-5-OA- Identification and characterization of novel peptides of clinical importance from salivary glands of Hyalomma ticks’
Dr. Nirmal Sangwan
External agencies funded


4037-C (g)-VPB-2-OA- Setting up of facility for testing of animals for A1/A2 genotype of beta casein and Up-gradation of existing biochemistry laboratory for diagnostic facilities to the farmers


PI: Dr.Nirmal Snagwan


 March 2018 


4040-C(g)AGB-2-OA- Genetic Improvement and Conservation of Indigenous Breed- Hariana

(In collaboration with Deptt of AGB)


Associate PI: Dr.Meenakshi  Virmani 


 March 2018


5515-C(b)-VPB-1-ICAR- Studies on rumen microbial  metagenomics in in relation to feed efficiency.


PI:Jyotsana Madan


 March 2018


 Identification of  bio-marker for  Early Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection and Development of Test to Differentiate between Johne’s Disease Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA)




Cooperating Center Principal     Investigator (CCPI): Dr. Shalini Sharma




Awards, Honours, Fellows and other recognitions
Name of Award Faculty Members Year of Award
i)Rafi Ahmed Kidwai
Memorial Award
Dr.S.P. Agarwal
ii)Sh.Ram Lal Agarwal Memorial
Research Award of Indian Herbs
Research & Supply Co.
iii)Sr.I.C.A.R. Fellowship
For Ph.D.
Dr.J.P.Puri 1985 to 1988
iv) Sr.CSIR Fellowship
For Ph.D.
Dr.Meenakshi Gupta 1993 to 1996
International Travel Fellowships
Name of faculty Type of Assignment Period Country
Dr.A.R.Rao Deputation for teaching 1975- 1977 Kabul Afghanistan
Dr.O.P.Nangia Training programme in Cardiovascular Physiology 3 months(1970) U.S.A.



Advanced diploma in

Physiological Biochemistry (FAO scholarship)

1 year(1971-72)




Dr.O.P.Nangia Teaching Assignment 1981-83 Nigeria
Dr.V.P.Dixit Ph.D. 1976 to 1979 Romania
Dr.J.P.Puri Training on teaching methodology 3 months (1999) U.S.A
Dr.M.K.Rose Ph.D.(DAAD fellowship) 1 year 3 months(2003-04) Germany
Dr.J.P.Puri Fellowship 6 days (2004) Germany
Dr.J.P.Puri To attend Conference 4 days Lahore (Pakistan)
Dr. Sandeep Gera Post Doctoral Fellowship 3 Months Canada

Dr .Nirmal Sangwan

Post Doctoral Fellowship

9 Months

Edinburgh, UK

Dr. Sonia Sindhu University of Sthrathclyde Award fellowship for PhD 2001 U.K.

Dr. Shalini Sharma

Award of EFIS (European federation of Immunological Societies)fellowship to attend 5 international conference on CMV and immunosenescence,


Amsterdam, the Netherlands


Sr. No.






Held the post of Dean, COVS




post of ADR,




selected as ADG

ICAR, New Delhi


Dr. Pradeep Bamal




Dr. Nirmal Sangwan

Director, HRM


Sr. no. Title  Editors/Authors 

 Year of Publication


Practical Veterinary Physiology,

1st Edn.Pp.1210

 Rose,M.K., Gupta




 Kalyani Publishers





S. No.






Editors/ Authors

Year of Publication


Practical Manual for & General Veterinary Biochemistry

Agarwal, V.K., Gera, S.Sangwan, N.Garg, S.L



Practical Manual for Veterinary Clinical Biochemistry

Sangwan, N.,Gera, S. and Garg, S.L



Practical Manual for Physiological Chemistry( Animal metabolism,systemic functions  and enzymes)

Sangwan, N., Gera, S. and Garg, S.L.



Practical Manual for ‘Introduction to Molecular Biology  and Biotechnology 

Gera,S.,Garg,S.L. and Sangwan, N



Revised Practical Manual for ‘General Veterinary Biochemistry’

Sangwan, N., Gera, S. and Kumar, S 



Practical Manual for ‘Veterinary  Intermediary Metabolism’

Sangwan, N., Gera, S. and Kumar, S 



Laboratory Manual of Veterinary  Physiology Paper-I. (Unit- 1 and  Unit-2).As per VCI Regulations  -2016

Rose M.K., Sindhu, S. and Gupta, M. 



Laboratory Manual of Veterinary  Physiology Paper-II (Unit-  3 and  Unit-4).As per VCI Regulations  -2016

Rose M.K., Sindhu, S., Gupta, M. and Malik, R.K. 



Laboratory Manual of Veterinary Biochemistry Part-I (Unit-I and Unit-III)

As per VCI Regulations-2016   

Sangwan N., Sharma S, Gera S and

Singh V



Laboratory Manual of Veterinary Biochemistry Part-II (Unit-II) As per VCI Regulations-2016   

Sangwan N., Sharma S, Gera S and Singh V


P.G. Thesis